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Research On the 51 Mental Events

by Lokabandhu

...
ways of enlightenment:

nyantiloka: (p. 46)
‘mental things, mental factors’, are those mental concomitants which are bound up with the
simultaneously arising consciousness (citta=vinnana) and conditioned by its presence. Whereas in the suttas all
phenomena of existence are summed up under the aspect of 5 groups: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental
formations, consciousness (s. khandha), the Abhidhamma as a rule treats them under the more philosophical 3 aspects: consciousness, mental factors and corporeality (citta, cetasika, rupa). Thus, of these 3 aspects, the mental
factors (cetasika) comprise feeling, perception and the 50 mental formations, altogether 52 mental concomitants. Of
these, 25 are lofty qualities (either karmically wholesome or neutral), 14 karmically unwholesome, while 13 are as
such karmically neutral, their karmical quality depending on whether they are associated with wholesome,
unwholesome or neutral consciousness. For details s. Tab. II, III. Cf. prec. (App.)
dhammasangini: (p. )

atthasalini: (p. )

vibhanga: (p. )

manuals of buddhism:
Mental properties are of 52 kinds.


(a) The Seven Common Properties (Sabha cittaka), so called on account of being common
to all classes of consciousness, viz : 1. phassa (contact) 2. vedana (feeling) 3. samjna (perception) 4. cetana
(volition) S. ekaggata (concentration of mind) 6. jivita (psychic life) 7. manasikara (attention).


(b) The six Particulars (pakinnaka) so called because they invariably enter into composition
with consciousness, viz: 1. vitakka (initial application) 2. vicara.(sustained application) 3. Viriya (effort) 4. piti
(pleasurable interest) 5. chanda (desire-to-do) 6. adhimokkha (deciding). The above thirteen kinds (a) and (b) are
called Mixtures (vimissaka), or better, as rendered by Shwe Zan Aung "Un-morals", as they are common to both
moral and immoral consciousness in composition.


(c) The fourteen Immorals (pipajati), viz: 1. lobha (greed) 2. Dosa (hate) 3. moha (dullness)
4. ditthi (error) S. mana (conceit) 6. issa (envy) 7. macchariya (selfishness) 8. Kukkucca (worry) 9. ahirika
(shamelessness) 10. Anottappa (recklessness) 11. uddhacca (distraction) 12. thina (sloth) 13. middha (torpor) 14.
vicikiccha (perplexity)


(d) The twenty-five Morals (kalayina jatika) viz: 1. alobha (disinterestedness) 2. adosa
(amity) 3. amoha (reason) 4. saddha (faith) 5. sati (mindfulness) 6. hiri (modesty) 7. ottappa (discretion) 8.
tatramaijhattathi (balance of mind) 9. kaya-passaddhi (composure of mental properties) 10. cittapassaddhi
(composure of mind) 11 kayalahuta (buoyancy of mental properties) 12. cittalahutsi (buoyancy of mind) 13 Kayamuduti (pliancy of mental properties), 14 citta muduta (pliancy of mind) 15 kayakammamata (adaptability of
mental properties) 16 cittakammanilati (adaptability of mind) 17 kayapagurlmati (proficiency of mental
properties) 18 cittapagunnata (proficiency of mind) 19 kiyujkata (rectitude of mental properties) 20 cittujukata
(rectitude of mind) 21 samma-vacca (right speech) 22 sammakammanta (right action) 23 sammsajiva (right
livelihood) (the immediately preceding three are called the Three Abstinences 24. karuna (pity) 25. mudita
(appreciation) (The last two are called the two Illimitables).

subhuti (India):

comm11:
other notes
page 12/ 206 The 51 Mental Events

Sarvatragas the five omnipresent mental events

other languages
hindi (from Chandrabodhi/Ashvajit):

marathi (from Chandrabodhi/Ashvajit):
marathi (from Prajnamata):
tibetan: kun ’gro lngachinese:
japanese:
lang5:

Sanskrit verbal root (from Dharmachandra):

translations
wei tat: universal caittasanacker: (not translated}
ganguli: universal mental events
kochumutton: universal mental factors
k.gyatso:
wood:
ways of e:
bhante :
guenther
dharmachandra:
omnipresent states
trans11:
subhuti:

definitions
sanskrit (MW): (p. )

BHS: (p. )

pali: (p. )

nyantiloka: (p. )

shobogenzo glossary: (vol. )
dict6: (p. )

dict7: (p. )


commentaries
Abhidharmakosa (Vasubandhu) What are the mahabhumikas, the mental states found in all minds? Sensation, volition,
motion, desire for action, contact, discernment, memory, the act of attention, approval, and absorption or
concentration coexist in every mind. According to the School, all the ten dharmas exist in every moment of the
mind.
Abhidharmasamuccaya (Asanga)
hsuan tsang (DMC):

bhante (KnowYourMind): Loosely speaking, in every situation in which the mind not only perceives an object but, as
it were, moves towards it, these five mental events are present. To be more accurate, one could say that the presence
of the five omnipresent (sarvatraga) mental events is implicit in the very definition of what it means to experience
an object. It's not that when one experiences an object these mental events are present. It's the other way round;
when these mental events are present, one is experiencing an object.
page 13/ 206 The 51 Mental Events



We must go further: it cannot be asserted that there is an object there at all, nor a subject
(oneself) to perceive it. All we can say is that a sort of network of these five mental events constitutes a perceptual
situation within which there is a subjective content and an objective content. This is the case at all mundane levels of
experience, including the higher states of dhyana.
bhante2 ():
bhante3 ():
bhante4 ():
bhante5 ():
yeshe gyaltsen:

guenther (P&PA):

geshe rabten (M &its F):
kelsang gyatso (UTM):

ways of enlightenment:


nyantiloka: (p. )
:
dhammasangini: (p. )

atthasalini: (p. )

vibhanga: (p. )

manuals of buddhism:


subhuti (India):
Sarvatraga is a Sanskrit word meaning universal or omnipresent. Every citta has these five
sarvatraga caitta-dharmas present in it. They are the sort of the mechanics, even the scaffolding, of consciousness.
They are what sort of make up the basic nature of citta. So some of these will be quite familiar to you from the 12 nidanas in the wheel of life. And that is not coincidental because the 12 nidanas show us the way in which the mind
becomes involved with its objects and recreates itself.
comm11:

other notes


page 14/ 206 The 51 Mental Events


vedana (vedana)
feeling
other languages
hindi (from Chandrabodhi/Ashvajit): vedana

marathi (from Chandrabodhi/Ashvajit): vedana
marathi (from Prajnamata): The word comes from the sanskrit root Vid which means to feel or even to know (what
you feel of also just know in the sense of Knowledge) in Marathi the word is associated more with painful feeling
as these are perhaps felt more strongly than the pleasurable ones but the word is used in the Buddhist teaching
consistently and another marathi word for it seems unnecessary.

tibetan: tshor-bachinese: shoujapanese:
lang5:

Sanskrit verbal root (from Dharmachandra): vedanā: vid = to know, experience, feel
translations
wei tat: sensation
anacker: feeling
ganguli: sensation
kochumutton: knowledge
k.gyatso:
wood: knowledgeways of e: feeling

bhante : ‘feeling’ or ‘emotion’ - positive or negative.
guenther

dharmachandra:

trans11:
subhuti: feeling

definitions
sanskrit (MW): (p. )

BHS: (p. 508)
feeling, sensation. In Pali there are three (eg Mvy 1913 sukhah, duhkhah, aduhkhasukhah)
pali: (p. )

shobogenzo glossary: (perception, feeling) Represented by (JU), "accepting, feeling”

[MW] announcing, proclaiming; perception, knowledge; pain, torture, agony; feeling, sensation.
dict6: (p. )

dict7: (p. )


commentaries
Abhidharmakosa (Vasubandhu) (p189) Vedana is the threefold sensation, pleasant, painful, and neither-painful-nor-
pleasant. ...

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