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Research On the 51 Mental Events

by Lokabandhu



The
Fifty-One
Mental
Events

an anthology














compiled by Lokabandhu
from various sources
this version printed tt.06.09
Sources used

Monier-Williams - Sanskrit Dictionary
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Nyantiloka - Buddhist Dictionary
Shobogenzo glossary

Asanga - Abhidharmasamuccaya
Yeshe Gyaltsen - Mind in Buddhist Psychology, translated by Guenther
Bhante - Know Your Mind and other books
Geshe Rabten - ‘Mind and its Functions’
Hsuen Tsang - Doctrine of Mere-Consciousness
Geshe Kelsang Gyatso - Understanding the Mind
Tarthang Tulku - Ways of Enlightenment

Abhidharmakosa - Vasubandhu, translated into French by Louis de La Vallee Poussin, English
translation by Leo M. Pugden. Published by Asian Humanities Press
Vibhanga - The Book of Analysis, the Second Book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, translated from the
Pali of the Burmese Chatthasangiti Edition by Pathamakyaw Ashin Thittila
Dhammasangini - A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics, the First Book in the Abhidhamma
Pitaka, trans. C.A.F. Rhys Davids.
Attasalini, the Expositor. Buddhaghosa's commentary on the Dhammasangani. Translated by
Maung Tin, m.a. Edited and revised by C.A.F. Rhys Davids
Ledi Sayadaw - Manuals of Buddhism
Vasubandhu - Trimsika, translations by Swati Ganguli, Anacker, Wei Tat, Kochumutton, and a free
version by Subhuti.

With thanks to:

Prajnamata, Ashvajit and Chandrabodhi for the Marathi / Hindi equivalents
Silabhadra and Kulamitra for permission to use excerpts from Bhante’s seminars
Windhorse Publications for permission to use excerpts from Bhante’s books
Dharmachandra for research into the Sanskrit roots of words











PLEASE NOTE THAT QUOTES TAKEN FROM SANGHARAKSHITA’S SEMINARS
ARE UNEDITED AND MAY CONTAIN INACCURACIES
Also please note that Subhuti’s comments are from unedited talks and have not been checked
by him

















Introduction


Bhante (Know Your Mind): No list of mental events
can be exhaustive; nor are the boundary lines
between them always fixed. Any classification of
them is solely to provide a tool for spiritual
practice, allowing one to give provisional labels to
one's experience, and thereby enabling oneself to
transform one's life. This needs constantly to be
borne in mind. As we have seen, the
Sarvastivadins number forty-six mental events,
while the Theravadins distinguish fifty two; but the
Yogacarins, whose classification we will be
following here, identify fifty-one different mental
events, divided into six categories: five
omnipresent mental events; five
object-determining mental events; eleven positive
mental events; six basic emotions [primary
negative mental events]; twenty proximate
emotions [secondary negative mental events]; and
four variable mental events.


The 51 Mental Events - alternative translations


vedana
wt:sensation
a:feeling
ga:sensation
k:knowledge
kg:feeling
we:feeling

b:feeling,emotion
gu:feeling
samjna
wt:conception
a:cognitions
ga:thought
k:conception
kg:discrimination

we:perception







b:perception; conceptualization, notion

gu: recognition/identification
cetana
wt:volition
a:volitions
ga:volition
k:volition
kg:intention
we:intention

b:will
gu:directionality of mind

sparsa
wt:contact
a:contacts
ga:touch
k:touch
kg: contact
we:contact

b:
gu: contact
manaskara
wt:attention
a:mental attentions ga:attention
k:attentiveness
kg: attention
we:attention

b:
gu:egocentric demanding



chanda
wt:desire
a:zest
ga:desire
k:desire
kg:aspiration
we:interest

b:eagerness, thrust, urge, desire, impulsion gu: interest
adhimoksha
wt:resolve
a:confidence
ga:resolve
k:resolve
kg:firm apprehension we:determination
b:









gu:intensified interest which stays with its object
smrti
wt:memory
a:memory
ga:memory
k:memory
kg:mindfulness

we:mindfulness
b: recollection, mindfulness gu:inspection
samadhi
wt:meditation
a:concentration
ga:meditation
k:concentration
kg:concentration

we:concentration
b:
gu: intense concentration
prajna
wt:discernment
a:insight
ga:wisdom
k:knowledge
kg:wisdom

we:discernment
b:
gu: analytical appreciative discrimination


sraddha
wt:belief
a:faith
ga:belief
k:faith
kg:faith
we:faith

b:
gu: confidence-trust
hri
wt:sense of shame
a:inner shame
ga:sense of shame
k:sense of shame
kg: sense of shame we:self-respect

b:shame
gu: self-respect/shame
apatrapya
wt:sense of integrity
a:dread of blame
ga:sense of integrity k:fear of censure kg: consideration we:propriety
b:









gu:
The 51 Mental Events
decorum/respect for wise opinion
alobha
wt:non-covetousness
a:lack of greed
ga:non-covetousness k:non-covetousness kg:non-attachment we:non-attachment b:
gu:
non-attachment
advesa
wt:non-anger
a:lack of hostility
ga:non-hatred
k:non-hatred
kg:non-hatred
we:non-
aversion
b:
gu: non-hatred
amoha
wt:non-delusion
a:lack of confusion ga:non-deludedness k:non-deludedness kg:non-ignorance we:
b:
gu:
non-deludedness
virya
wt:zeal/diligence
a:vigour
ga:diligence
k:courage
kg:effort
we:effort

b: intentness
gu: energy in pursuit of the good
prasrabdhi
wt:composure of mind a:tranquillity
ga:composure of mind k:composure
kg:mental suppleness we:alert ease

b:tension-release, pliancy gu: alertness/tranquillity
apramada
wt:vigilance
a:carefulness
ga:vigilance
k:alertness
kg:conscientiousness we:
conscientiousness b:conscientiousness gu: concern/non-heedlessness
upeksa
wt:equanimity
a:
ga:equanimity
k:equanimity
kg:equanimity

we:equanimity
b:
gu: equanimity
avihimsa
wt:harmlessness/non-injury a:non-harming ga:non-injury k:harmlessness
kg:non-harmfulness,/compassion








we:non-
violence
b:
gu: non-violence

raga
wt:covetousness
a:attachment
ga:covetousness
k:passionate attachment kg:desirous attachment we:
b:

gu:cupidity-attachment
pratigha
wt:anger
a:aversion
ga:anger
k:grudge
kg:anger
we:

b:
gu:anger
mana
wt:conceit
a:pride
ga:conceit
k:pride
kg:deluded pride
we:

b:
gu:arrogance

avidya
wt:delusion
a:confusion
ga:delusion
k:stupidity
kg:ignorance

we:confusion
b:
gu:lack of intrinsic awareness
vicikitsa
wt:doubt
a:doubts
ga:doubt
k:doubt ...

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